36th International Nathiagali Summer College (2011)
First Activity (June 27 – July 2, 2011) Particle Physics (June 27 – June 29, 2011) Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN became operational in 2009 first at low energy and now it is operating at 7 TeV centre of mass energy. At this energy around 30 pb-1 data has been delivered until now and the plan is to collect 1 fb-1 data by the end of 2011. Pakistan is involved in two experiments at CERN namely: CMS dedicated for the discovery of new particles and physics beyond the Standard Model, the other detector is ALICE which is a dedicated detector for the study of heavy ion physics. Number of interesting results have been reported so far by CMS and ALICE. This activity will allow the participants to become current on the topic and will allow the groups involved in these experiments to have further in depth discussions with the leading experts in the field.
Quantum Informatics Systems (June 30 – July 02, 2011) Quantum Information Theory is the generalization of classical information theory to quantum world. It has emerged as a very active research field over the last two decades. One of the main aims of quantum information is the physical realization of quantum computer. De-coherence of quantum systems is the main obstacles in the physical realization of quantum information and computation. It is therefore important to understand the dynamics of open quantum systems in order to overcome de-coherence. It is challenging to solve the exact master equation describing the dynamics of quantum systems as it is complicated integro-differential equation. A multitude of approaches have been developed to solve it but most of them invoke the strong Markov-Born approximation. Recently, some techniques have been proposed to study the post-Markovian dynamics of open quantum systems but a comprehensive theory is still an open problem. This conference well bring together scientists working in this area and provide an opportunity for them to interact and share their latest research work.
Second Activity (July 04 – July 08, 2011) Analytical Techniques for Nanomaterials Theory of the formation and properties of nanostructure & Characterization techniques that are useful to study nanosturctures. Both of these areas are essential in order to acquire a complete understanding of the synthesis behavior of nanomaterials. Thre is also the need to complement experimental work in the general area of characterization of nanomaterials with current developments in theoretical and experimental techniques, to further realize the dream of tailoring properties of nanomaterials for appropriate functionalization.
Photovoltaic’s Photovoltaics (PV) is a method of generating electrical power by converting solar radiation into direct current electricity using semiconductors that exhibit the photovoltaic effect. The growing demand for renewable energy sources., the manufacture of solar cells and photovoltaic arrays has advanced considerably in recent years. As of 2010, solar photovoltaics generates electricity in more than 100 countries. Driven by advances in technology and increases in manufacturing scale and sophistication, the cost of photovoltaics has declined steadily since the first solar cells were manufactured. Photovoltaic production has been increasing by an average of more than 20 percent each year since 2002, making it the world’s fastest-growing energy technology. The estimated PV worldwide installations outlooks of 2012 are 18.8GW. In Pakistan, several scientists and engineers are engaged independently in the research and development of photovoltaic power generation. There is need of joint collaborative work by exchanging their ideas in a form like Nathiagali Summer College.
Request for participation, on the prescribed form (e-mail or photocopy) should reach the Executive Secretary by 31st March, 2011. The selected candidates will be informed by 30th April 2011. Final selection, however, is subject to receipt of the formal application. For Registration, visit
he Galyat tracts were first ‘discovered’ by early British colonial officials, such as James Abbott (Indian Army officer), who ventured into these areas circa 1846–47. The British found them climatically conducive to them and began to develop some of the sites in the range/tract as hill resorts, to escape the summer heat of the low-lands. Later on, after Partition/Independence of Pakistan in 1947, these were neglected for some time but eventually developed further from the 1960s onwards as popular resorts.
The area, being home to the Karlal tribe, was called the ‘Karral country’ during the colonial times by the British (named after the tribe). The Karlal’s are still the dominant tribe of the Galyat. The language spoke by the tribesmen is Hindko whereas the dialect of Hindko spoken is called the ‘Dhundi-Kairali’. It is today located in what is the Abbottabad District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. At an elevation of 2,410 m (8,000 ft), it is a popular tourist resort in the summer months. It is forested with pine, cedar, oak walnut and also oak and maple trees.